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Cochlear implant indications

Only Cochlear Implant FDA-Approved For Treatment Of SSD. Hearing Loss In Just One Ear? MED-EL Could Help You Hear Better In Noise And Tell Where Sound Is Coming From. Learn Mor Learn About Cochlear Implants & Discover A World Of Sound. Find A Clinic Now Although cochlear implantation is used for more than 40 years, the indications for this treatment underlies constant modifications. They concern the age of eligible patients, implantation in patients with partially preserved hearing, as well as treatment for patients with difficult anatomical condit For patients with hearing loss that is not mitigated with hearing aids, a cochlear implant may provide an opportunity for hearing. [ 1, 2, 3] The cochlear implant is a surgically placed device that..

Cochlear Implant Technology - Hear The Cochlear Advantag

  1. The presented indications are intended to provide only a general overview for candidacy criteria. Additionally, criteria for cochlear implant candidacy by the FDA may differ from criteria for coverage of cochlear implantation by medical insurance
  2. The indications for cochlear implantation have expanded, as many unilaterally implanted individuals are able to achieve open-set word recognition. Despite the benefits seen in unilateral implantation, many individuals have difficulty perceiving speech in noisy environments
  3. Cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf. CI represents the current treatment for patients affected by profound sensorineu- ral hearing loss (SNHL)
  4. A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted device for the treatment of severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in children and adults. It works by transducing acoustic energy into an electrical signal, which is used to stimulate surviving spiral ganglion cells of the auditory nerve
  5. For pediatric patients, a cochlear implant is vital to giving children access to sound for proper speech and language development. 3 Below you will find U.S. FDA indications regarding Nucleus cochlear implant candidacy for both adults and children. As well as Nucleus Hybrid™ System* candidacy. Adult CI Candidacy
  6. Bone anchored implants may be generally recommended for people having a conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss or single-sided sensorineural hearing loss. Additional information about each system and possible candidates follows below. Who might be indicated for a bone anchored implant? These implants may be indicated for people who

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A cochlear implant is an electronic device that partially restores hearing. It can be an option for people who have severe hearing loss from inner-ear damage who are no longer helped by using hearing aids Cochlear Implants Cochlear implants are electronic hearing devices. Doctors implant cochlear implants into people with severe to profound hearing loss to produce useful hearing sensations. The FDA.. Indication of conductive or mixed hearing loss as indicated by audiometric testing, with bone conduction hearing thresholds that fall within the shaded area in the chart below Aged 5 years or older Anatomy that allows appropriate placement of the implant as determined by CT sca This approval expands the current cochlear implantation indications to include patients 5 years and older with single sided deafness (SSD) and asymmetric hearing loss (AHL) who have profound.. The eligibility criteria for cochlear implants for SSD includes: Indication of mild-to-moderate hearing loss or normal hearing in the contralateral ear within a certain threshold. Indication of severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss in an affected ear within a certain threshold. Adequate expectations and motivation

Incidence and indications for revision cochlear implant surgery in adults and children. Brown KD (1), Connell SS, Balkany TJ, Eshraghi AE, Telischi FF, Angeli SA. Author information: (1)University of Miami Ear Institute, Miami, Florida, USA. kbrown3@med.miami.edu. OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To identify the incidence of and common causes for. The advances in design of, and indications for, cochlear implants have been matched by improvements in surgical techniques and decrease in complications. The resulting improvements in safety and efficacy have further encouraged the use of these devices. This paper will review the new concepts in the candidacy of cochlear implant The distribution of revision cochlear implant (RCI) indications in all cases and divided by adults vs. children. 3.3. Audiologic Outcomes Speech perception data before and after RCI were available for 136 cases (79% of the 172 total cohort). Of these, 86 cases were classified according to the phoneme-based crite Each cochlear implant system is shipped with a Physician's Package Insert which specifies the FDA labeled indications for implantation. Since the three cochlear implant manufacturers generally work independently, the labeled indications for cochlear implant criteria vary across the companies Cochlear implants are not a contraindication to MRI scanning despite the internal magnet, but it is important the radiology practice is aware of the cochlear implant prior to imaging. Depending on the implant, minimal precautions, head bandaging or magnet removal may be required for scanning

A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted neuroprosthesis that provides a person with sensorineural hearing loss a modified sense of sound. CI bypasses the normal acoustic hearing process to replace it with electric signals which directly stimulate the auditory nerve. A person with a cochlear implant receiving intensive auditory training may learn to interpret those signals as sound. The NCD for Cochlear Implantation (50.3), released by CMS in April 2005, concluded that, effective for services performed on or after April 4, 2005, cochlear implantation may be covered for individuals meeting certain selection guidelines (see below) and with hearing test scores of greater than 40% and less than or equal to 60% only when the provider is participating in, and patients are. Cochlear Nucleus cochlear implants are intended for use on individuals 18 years and older who have bilateral, pre, peri or postliniguistic sensoirneural hearing impairment and obtain limited benefit from appropriate binuaral hearing aids. For complete indications, please refer to implant instructions for use This yearly program disseminates information regarding up-to-date indications for surgical intervention, as well as improvements in cochlear implant outcomes. The underlining goal is early identification and referral of cochlear implant candidates, so that patients can make informed decisions regarding options for hearing rehabilitation

A single- or multi-channel unilateral or bilateral cochlear implant is intended to restore a level of auditory sensation to an individual with bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss by means of electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve People with cochlear implants are more likely to get bacterial meningitis than people without cochlear implants. In addition, some people who are candidates for cochlear implants have anatomic factors that may increase their risk for meningitis. These factors include facial and cranial abnormalities, including of the temporal bone and cochlea Cochlear implants have been shown to improve the quality of life for thousands of people around the world. Over the past 30 years, research and developments in the field of cochlear implantation have made remarkable progress. When cochlear implants were first introduced they merely enabled sounds to be perceived. Later The Cochlear. Baha. System. The Baha ® System uses the body's natural ability to deliver sound through bone conduction. It can help you maximize your hearing experience so you can communicate more easily. If you have conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss or single-sided deafness (SSD), the Baha System may be the right hearing solution.

MED-EL Cochlear Implants - Future-Ready Technolog

  1. This is the first time cochlear implants have been green-lighted for these indications in the United States. MED-EL Cochlear Implant Systems, including SYNCHRONY and the recently FDA-approved SYNCHRONY 2, are now approved for people 5 years and older with single-sided deafness who have profound sensorineural hearing loss in one ear and normal.
  2. Cochlear Implants for Single-Sided Deafness. In natural hearing, sounds travel from your outer ear to your inner ear, which is known as the cochlea. The cochlea turns sound waves into nerve signals that can be understood by the brain. You have two cochleae, one on each side to detect sounds for each ear
  3. Expanded Indications in the Adult Cochlear Implant Population The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government
  4. Cochlear Implants: Indications and Technology Simon C. Parisier, MD, * and Patricia Chute, MA, CCC-At Cochlear implant technology offers an alternative to profoundly deaf­ened individuals who cannot benefit from amplification or vibrotactile aids. Before the introduction of this technology, these individuals had few therapeutic options
  5. Medical Implants and Surgery J o u r n a l o f M e d i c a l I m p n t s a n d S u r g e r y oue ssue ed Surg, an oen aess ourna Bilateral Cochlear Implantation: Indications for Fitting of the Implants Petrov SM* Russian Federation, St.-Petersburg, Russia *Corresponding author: Petrov SM, Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia

Cochlear Implants Info - Cochlear Hearing Implant

Indications

Many centers are investigating the safety and efficacy of cochlear implants in adults and children. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has monitored these investigations, recently approving two devices for general use in adults. In general, appropriate implant candidates have a bilateral, profound to total sensorineural hearing loss, are unable to benefit from. : Many centers are investigating the safety and efficacy of cochlear implants in adults and children. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has monitored these investigations, recently approving two devices for general use in adults. In general, appropriate implant candidates have a bilateral, profound to total sensorineural hearing loss, are unable to benefit from. current supplement is to seek expansion of the indication for the Nucleus 24 Cochlear Implant System to include patient populations between 9 and 12 months of age. II. INDICATIONS FOR USE . Adults . The Nucleus 24 Cochlear Implant System is intended for individuals 18 years of age o The internal component of the cochlear implant replaces the function of cochlear hair cells by direct electrical stimulation of the spiral ganglion neurons. Indications for cochlear implantation Annual routine screening for hearing loss in people 65 years or older is recommended and also a legal requirement for some occupations (e.g. Cochlear implant Indications Guidelines France a b s t r a c t Objectives: The authors present the guidelines of the French Society of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery (Société franc¸aise d'oto-rhino-laryngologie et de chirurgie de la face et du cou - SFORL) on the indications for cochlear implantation in children. Methods

A cochlear implant is a small electronic device that electrically stimulates the cochlear nerve (nerve for hearing). The implant has external and internal parts. The external part sits behind the ear. It picks up sounds with a microphone. It then processes the sound and transmits it to the internal part of the implant The criteria to determine candidacy for cochlear implants have changed a great deal since the devices were first introduced. Recently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved specific cochlear implant devices for children as young as 9 months of age. The FDA also recently approved the use of specific devices for individuals with single. Margaret Dillon, AuD is a Research Associate Professor and Director of Cochlear Implant Clinical Research in the Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Dillon conducts clinical research investigating cochlear implant signal coding, spatial hearing, and expanded indications for.

Pre Operative Work up or evaluation for Cochlear ImplantCochlear Implantation | Ento Key

Current indications for cochlear implantation in adults

Incidence and indications for revision cochlear implant surgery in adults and children Eight hundred and six cochlear implants were performed during the study period including 44 (5.5%) revision procedures. The revision rate was 7.3% for children and 3.8% for adults and reached statistical significant difference. The most common reasons for. As indications for cochlear implantation (CI) expand, children with significant unilateral hearing loss are being considered for candidacy. This course will focus on 12-month outcomes obtained as part of a clinical trial investigating safety and efficacy of cochlear implantation in this population This multicenter nonrandomized clinical trial examines the effectiveness of cochlear implants, as measured by improvement on the AzBio Sentence Test, for newly implanted Medicare beneficiaries who meet the expanded indications of an AzBio Sentence Test score of 41% to 60% in their best-aided condition Expanded Indications in the MED-EL Pediatric Cochlear Implant Population The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government

Cochlear Implants

For further discussion, see the Medscape Reference article Indications for Cochlear Implants. Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy. The surgeon performing cochlear implant surgery must be experienced in otologic surgery and, ideally, some aspects of neurotologic surgery. Intimate knowledge of the relevant surgical anatomy of the mastoid cortex. As the RONDO is a component of the MAESTRO Cochlear Implant System, all indications . stated for the Cochlear Implant System are applicable. To obtain optimal benefit from the cochlear implant, candidates shall be sufficiently moti-vated and shall understand the importance of returning to the CI center for regular audi Indications of cochlear implant revisions There are two main categories for indications for revisions: non-device related indications and device related indications [ 2 ]. Device related indications have been claimed to be the most common cause of reimplantation representing ~75% of cases

cochlear implants are a safe and effective treatment for severe to profound hearing loss. Today, the FDA continues to monitor cochlear implant device use and outcomes, and determines if the specific wording used in device labeling, including indications for use, is appropriate Cochlear implant devices are available in single-channel and multi-channel models. The purpose of implanting the device is to provide awareness and identification of sounds and to facilitate communication for persons who are moderately to profoundly hearing impaired. Indications and Limitations of Coverage . B. Nationally Covered Indications. 1 Medicare indications for a cochlear implant have been in existence since 2005 and state the following: The evidence is adequate to conclude that cochlear implantation is reasonable and necessary for treatment of bilateral pre-or postlinguistic, sensorineural, moderate to profound hearing loss in individuals who demonstrate limited benefit. DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA — MED-EL USA announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the company's cochlear implant system for single-sided deafness (SSD) and asymmetric hearing loss (AHL).. The approval represents the first and only time that cochlear implants have been approved for these indications in the United States In most cochlear implant centers, as the surgeon's skill and clinical expertise in managing various cochlear implant cases improve with years of experience, the complication rates ideally come down over time. This article is intended to describe the most common surgical complications of cochlear implantation in Zagazig University Hospitals

Indications for Cochlear Implants: Overview, Preoperative

Cochlear Implant . Semi-implantable and Fully Implantable Middle Ear Hearing Aid ***Note: This Medical Policy is complex and technical. For questions concerning the technica l language and/or specific clinical indications for its use, please consult your physician. Polic 1. Introduction. Cochlear implant (CI) is now at a mature stage: the developments in terms of programming strategies, design improvements, especially the ones of electrode arrays, and the surgical techniques have progressively allowed the indication extension, for adults and children, with severe hearing loss and residual hearing, ensuring a high level of speech comprehension A cochlear implant has 2 parts: The external part is worn behind your child's ear. It has a sound processor, microphone, and battery. It receives sounds and changes them into electric signals. Those signals are sent to the internal part called the receiver. The receiver is implanted under the skin behind your child's ear Evidence-based recommendations on cochlear implants for children and adults with severe to profound deafness.. This guidance has been updated after a review of the criteria for defining severe to profound deafness and for assessing adequate benefit from acoustic hearing aids set out in recommendation 1.5 See the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) section for FDA indications for each cochlear implant device. Specific criteria vary with the device. Cochlear hybrid implants are unproven and not medically necessary for hearing loss

Introduction of the method of treatment of partial deafness with cochlear implants has given many patients the previously inaccessible chance to (re)enter the world of sounds. This method of treatment had been developed and introduced to the world's medicine by H. Skarżyński in 2002, after the extensive research since 1997. This task involved creation of a multispecialty team of experts. Cochlear implants Background. Cochlear implants (CIs) are surgically implantable devices that have revolutionized care of the child with sensorineural hearing loss too severe to be helped by hearing aids. CIs have been approved for use in children older than 12 months of age since 2000, and in March 2020 this age was lowered to 9 months The role of age on cochlear implant performance, use, and health utility: a multicenter clinical trial. Otol Neurotol. 35(9):1560-8. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000000583. Papadelis, G. (2014). Music perception in older adult cochlear implant users: Evidence about age-related decline in rapid temporal processing

Cochlear implant Pediatric cochlear implant Insurance coverage cochlear implant Cochlear implant indications. Additional information Notes on contributors. Lindsey E. Moses. David R Friedmann, MD, MSc is a neurotologist, cochlear implant surgeon and clinical investigator at the New York University Grossman School of Medicine. His research. IHS 2016: Cochlear Americas Expanded Indications and Meaningful Innovations 10 Nucleus Cochlear Implant Indication Pediatric: 2 -17 years Cochlear Implant <30% MLNT or LNT in best aided condition FDA Indication for Implantation • ≥ 5 years of age • ≤ 65 dB HL Bone Conduction PTA > PTA of 0.5, 1, 2 & 3 kHz • For bilateral fitting.

Video: Cochlear Implantation Iowa Head and Neck Protocol

Session: Expanded Indications for Cochlear Implantation Co-Chairs: Jill Firszt, PhD and Howard Francis, MD . Variables Affecting Outcomes for Speech Perception and Localization in Patients who have NH in One Ear and a CI in the Contralateral Ear: Camille Dunn, PhD Benefits of Cochlear Implantation Among Adults and Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss: Doug Sladen, Ph Cochlear implants are different from hearing aids. While hearing aids amplify sounds to facilitate sound detection by impaired ear structures, cochlear implants bypass damaged portions of the ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve. This type of stimulation improves clarity and speech understanding A cochlear implant is a small, complex electronic device that can help to provide a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard-of-hearing. The implant consists of an external portion that sits behind the ear and a second portion that is surgically placed under the skin (see figure). An implant has the following parts Increase in the Indications for Cochlear Implant 1. Pediatric cases The indications for CI in Japan were restricted to postlingual adults more than 18 years of age. In April 1998, however, the new criteria for indication including pediatric cases, were established; children more than 2 years of age were included as candidate for the.

Auditory Brainstem Implantation in Children | SpringerLink

Children younger than 2 years old with cochlear implants should receive PCV13 according to the Childhood Immunization Schedule. If an older child with cochlear implants did not get the recommended doses as an infant and young child, they may need to receive PCV13. Children 2 years or older with cochlear implants should also receive PPSV23 The cochlear implant is an electronic prosthesis that stimulates cells of the auditory spiral ganglion to provide a sense of sound to persons with hearing impairment. The patient selection criteria for cochlear implants described above were adapted from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for cochlear implants

Historically, indications to qualify for a cochlear implant and indications to qualify for disability due to hearing loss have required patients to have significant bilateral hearing loss. With cochlear implants, this was a decision made in early clinical trials when the safety and efficacy of cochlear implants were not yet proven A cochlear implant device is an electronic instrument, part of which is implanted surgically to stimulate auditory nerve fibers, and part of which is worn or carried by the individual to capture, analyze, and code sound. Cochlear implant devices are available in single-channel and multi-channel models Medicare indications for a cochlear implant have been in existence since 2005 and state the following: The evidence is adequate to conclude that cochlear implantation is reasonable and necessary for treatment of bilateral pre-or postlinguistic, sensorineural, moderate to profound hearing loss in individuals who demonstrate limited benefit. Cochlear implants (CI) represent the current treatment for patients affected by profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Initially only deaf adult patients were considered to be candidates for a CI; however, the development of technology and matured experience have expanded the indications for cochlear implantation. Today, CIs are implanted in adults and children and broader indications are. The indication for an auditory brainstem implant (ABI) in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients is well known as it has been used for years [].Next to NF2, several other indications have been reported over the years and seem plausible in the cases where no cochlear implant (CI) or other means of rehabilitation can be used

New Criteria of Indication and Selection of Patients to

cochlear implants in general is widespread in developed countries, but the use of two implants is a relatively new practice. The additional cost of a second implant and uncertainty about the added benefit Expanded FDA-approved indications als No changes to the approved devices are required for the new indications. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved SYNCHRONY and SYNCHRONY 2 (MED-EL) cochlear implant systems for single. The purpose of this investigation is to demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of MED-EL cochlear implants in children 7 months to 5 years, 11 months of age who fall outside the current FDA-approved candidacy criteria and, yet, continue to demonstrate insufficient functional access to sound with appropriately fit hearing aids and aural habilitation

Implant cochléaire : indications, opération, résultats

• Cochlear implant is an electronic device that bypasses damaged structures in the inner ear and directly stimulates the auditory nerve. Cochlear implants are only recommended after the 2. Sargent EW. Cochlear implant: Indications. eMedicine J. 2002;3(6). 3. Smosky WJ. Speech audiometry. eMedicine J. 2001:2(7). 4. Grayeli AB, Bouccara D. There are indications that cochlear implants may provide long-term tinnitus suppression in individuals with severe sensorineural hearing loss. Cochlear implants have been reported to provide tinnitus relief in up to 90% of patients. There is evidence that deafferentation of the auditory pathway plays an important role in causing tinnitus, and. necessary for the following indications: Cochlear Implants I. Cochlear implantation for members ≥12 months of age are considered medically necessary when criteria are met using specific Procedure InterQual subset. II. Replacement of a cochlear implant and/or its external components (external speec PLEASE NOTE: Recommendation for a cochlear implant evaluation does not assure that an evaluation will occur. Each Cochlear Implant Center triages the individual case according to their own cochlear implant fitting criteria. The Cochlear Implant Center will determine whether the patient is an appropriate candidate for that center's program. PLEAS

Cochlear implant: indications, contraindications and

A cochlear implant is a hearing device that may be used for certain types of severe or profound hearing loss. Cochlear implants work differently than typical hearing aids. Hearing aids The labeled indications from the FDA for currently marketed implant devices are summarized in . Table 2 Cochlear Implants TRICARE covers cochlear implantation for implants that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and are in accordance with FDA-indications for implantation. Certain criteria may apply to be covered. Replacement of the cochlear implant external speech processor device is also covered Cochlear implant candidacy should be extended to adults with severe hearing impairment and open-set sentence discrimination that is less than or equal to 30 percent in the best aided condition. Indications in favor of an implant are a severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss bilaterally and open-set sentence recognition scores less. MYTH #2: Getting a Cochlear Implant Requires Brain Surgery. Fact: There's absolutely no brain surgery involved in getting a cochlear implant. The implant itself sits under skin behind the ear and an electrode is inserted into the cochlea, which is in the inner ear. The surgeon doesn't need to go near your brain at all

Cochlear Implantation: An Overvie

A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted device used for hearing rehabilitation of adults and children with advanced sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and/or poor speech discrimination who gain limited benefit from conventional hearing aids. At a fundamental level, a CI is a transducer that transforms acoustic energy into an electrical. A cochlear implant is a device for treatment of severe to profound hearing loss in individuals who only receive limited benefit from amplification with hearing aids. A cochlear implant provides direct electrical language and/or specific clinical indications for its use, please consult your physician. Polic Cochlear implants are designed for people with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. With this type of hearing loss, the hair cells in the inner ear are damaged, and can't detect sounds properly. A cochlear implant bypasses these damaged hair cells and sends electric signals to the brain, where they are interpreted as sound A cochlear implant system includes several pieces of technology that work together to bypass the cochlea—restoring hearing by sending sound directly to the hearing nerve. The first is an internal component (the implant and electrode array) which is implanted by a surgeon. And the second is a series of external components that is worn on the. At OHSU, we have a high volume cochlear implant center, performing around 180 cochlear implant surgeries per year. I first gained exposure to MED-EL cochlear implants while in residency at NYU, a high volume cochlear implant center. I gained significant experience with MED-EL cochlear implants during my fellowship at UT Southwestern Medical Center

Bimodal Hearing: Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids Together

Cochlear™ Nucleus® implant candidacy and indications for

A cochlear implant is a device used to provide the sensation of sound to the pro­ foundly deaf. It includes an implantable receiverIstimulator module with an electrode array (placed either inside or outside the cochlea), a microphone and a speech processor.; The Nucleus 22 channel cochlear implant is the current market leader A cochlear implant has two parts: Implant, which is placed into the inner ear during surgery, and a Sound processor which is worn behind the ear like a hearing aid: The sound processor picks up and filters sounds. The sound processor translates the filtered sounds into digital information and sends it to the internal implant Cochlear Implants. A cochlear implant is a device that restores a sense of sound for people with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant system consists of the internal implant and externally worn equipment. The implant is surgically placed under the skin with an electrode array inserted into the inner ear

Bone anchored implant indications - Cochlea

A cochlear implant is an electronic medical device designed to restore some ability to perceive sounds and understand speech by individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. A cochlear implant bypasses damaged hair cells in the cochlea and stimulates the remaining nerve fibers directly through the application of electrical current The UNC Cochlear Implant Clinical Research team is grateful to the clinical trial participants. It is because of their participation that the indications for cochlear implantation have expanded and more patients who are struggling with single-sided deafness and asymmetric hearing loss may benefit from this intervention The HiRes 90K TM implant family features the most advanced sound processing available and unsurpassed programming flexibility for the world's best hearing performance. 4,5 This sophisticated technology from AB is designed to bring you the clearest, most accurate sound possible so that you or your child can hear well in challenging listening situations like telephone conversations, office. A cochlear implant is a device for people with severe-to-profound hearing loss who only receive limited benefit from amplification with hearing aids. A cochlear implant provides direct electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve, bypassing the usual transducer cells that are absent or nonfunctional in deaf cochlea Researchers at the UNC Adult Cochlear Implant Program and the Children's Cochlear Implant Center explore these expanded indications. Around 70 patients have participated in a total of six clinical trials thus far, completing a variety of auditory tests every few months for one year after implant activation