CT. There is a sharply demarcated biconvex epidural heterogeneously hyperdense collection of the right temporoparietal region (maximum thickness = 26 mm) with a mass effect on the midline structures and subfalcine herniation. The bone window and 3D-VR show an underlying temporoparietal fracture through the squamosal suture which limits the. In contrast, epidural hematomas (EDHs) are caused by contact forces that are of high magnitude and short duration. During EDH formation, direct impact leads to focal deformation of the calvarium with disruption of the dura and associated vascular attachments to the inner table of the skull Spinal hematomas are a frequent indication for radiologic evaluation and can be a diagnostic dilemma for many radiologists and surgeons. There are four types of spinal hematomas: epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, and intramedullary (spinal cord) hematomas
Although most extradural hematomas in the posterior fossa are due to temporal bone fractures involving the middle meningeal artery, in the setting of occipital trauma, particularly fractures of the occipital bone, venous hemorrhage is more common 2. As is the case with vertex extradural hemorrhages, bleeding is from the adjacent sinus, in this. An epidural hematoma is a bleeding that occurs between the dura and the skull. It is mostly seen in children who have a head injury with fracture of the temporal bone resulting in tearing of the middle meningeal artery. In theory an epidural hematoma can cross the midline because it is located between the dura and the skull The natural evolvement of the hematoma - shows as: Acute = hyperdense/ white. Subacute = isodense. Chronic = hypodense. ** Extradural (epidural) vs subdural : epi = above dural , sub = below dural (potential space between dura ( inserts firmly into each sutures) and arachnoid). Dura is a tough thick membrane . Spontaneous EDH is frequently associated with disk herniation and acute events such as sneezing or coughing
An epidural hematoma, as the name suggests, is an abnormal collection of blood above the dura mater. Therefore, an epidural hematoma is located between the skull and dura mater. It appears as a convex, lens-shaped hemorrhage on head imaging OVERVIEW. This page is dedicated to covering how a epidural hematoma will appear on different types of radiological imaging studies. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS. An epidural hematoma refers to bleeding that occurs between the dura meningeal layer and the skull (the bleeding will separate the dural from the bone. It is classically caused by the rupture of the middle meningeal artery, although more. Epidural hematoma (EDH) is defined as hemorrhage into the potential space between the dura, which is inseparable from cranial periosteum, and the adjacent bone The clinical findings in spontaneous epidural hematoma were identical to those in acute disk herniation. Underlying disk abnormalities were common; the majority of hematomas (14 of 18, 78%) were associated with small concomitant disk herniations or underlying annular tears To identify specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of epidural fluid collections associated with infection, hematoma, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Summary of background data: The purpose of this study was to identify specific MRI characteristics of epidural fluid collections associated with infection, hematoma, or CSF
Epidural hematoma (ie, accumulation of blood in the potential space between dura and bone) may be intracranial (EDH) or spinal (SEDH) (see the image below). Intracranial epidural hematoma occurs in approximately 2% of patients with head injuries and 5-15% of patients with fatal head injuries Title: Epidural Hematoma. Author: Rahaf AlFukaha. Scientific editor: Dr. Omar Jbarah. Linguistic Editor: Zain Alsaddi, Philip Sweidan . Overview: An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial blood accumulation within the space between the inner table of the skull and the dura mater which is the outermost layer of the meninges. (1) It takes a biconvex lenticular shape due to the dura's. Furthermore, epidural fat often disappears due to being covered by an epidural hematoma, whereas with subdural hematomas, the epidural fat is visualized farther from the hematoma than the dura. MRI in our case showed hematomas with a zonal change with a capsule and a lower intensity signal than that of CSF on the dorsal side of the dura, and a. Purpose: To evaluate radiologic findings and clinical data in patients with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH). Materials and methods: Thirteen patients (10 men aged 28-71 years; three women aged 40-65 years) with SSEH from 1986 to 1995 underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; six also underwent spinal angiography. Patients with minor trauma, anticoagulant therapy, increased.
Epidural hematoma is when bleeding occurs between the tough outer membrane covering the brain (dura mater) and the skull. Often there is loss of consciousness following a head injury, a brief regaining of consciousness, and then loss of consciousness again. Other symptoms may include headache, confusion, vomiting, and an inability to move parts of the body Axial non-contrast. A large biconvex epidural hematoma in the left frontotemporal region causing mass effect, midline shift and sub-falcine herniation. There is a linear fracture in the temporal and frontal bone in addition to a right blow-out fracture of the orbit with fat herniation Scroll Stack. Scroll Stack. Sagittal T2. Extensive, acute epidural hematoma extending from C3 to T4 compressing the spinal cord. There is increased T2 signal within the cord, likely reflecting cord edema Author information: (1)Department of Neuroradiology, Division of Radiology, Ullevål University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Epidural hematomas occurring at the vertex are uncommon, and they can be difficult to diagnose by axial CT. We report a case of acute traumatic vertex epidural hematoma, which resolved spontaneously with time Epidural hematomas are a subtype of intracranial hemorrhage due to arterial bleeding between the dura and the skull. Their clinical presentation is characterized by a lucid interval prior to potentially catastrophic neurological sequelae and imaging shows a biconvex shaped blood collection
CLINICAL RADIOLOGY Epidural Hematoma E pidural or extra Dural hematoma is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs between the Dura mater and the skull. The Dura mater also covers the spine, so epidural bleeds may also occur in the spinal column The Facts about Epidural Hematomas. Much of what is known about epidural hematomas comes from case reports. In a literature review from 1906-1994 by Vandermeulen et al, sixty-one patients were diagnosed with a spinal hematoma that occurred after an epidural (46) or spinal (15). Forty-two of these (68%) occurred in patients with documented.
Fig. 12.2 Hyperacute intracerebral hematoma with fluid-blood level. (a) Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) shows a heterogeneous hyperintense hematoma (white arrow) with focal areas of hypointensity, surrounded by a well-defined hypointense rim (small white arrow).The hematoma is isointense on (b) T1-weighted image, hyperintense on (c) T2-weighted image, and shows greater signal loss on (d. Rashmikant Kothari, MD, is an associate professor of emergency medicine and clerkship director at Western Michigan University. He is currently the chair of the Stroke Task Force of the American Heart Association National ACLS Subcommittee and is on the scientific advisory board of Neuron Therapeutics, Inc Discussion. Traumatic spinal epidural hematomas (TSEHs) are relatively uncommon, occurring in less than 2% of all spinal injuries, but their sequelae, including cord compression, can be serious, which makes early diagnosis essential. 4 Imaging plays a crucial role in this diagnosis, and MR imaging is the best tool for evaluation of a potential TSEH. MR imaging of an early subacute spinal. Summary: The MR finding of an acute spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) can mimic epidural neoplastic or inflammatory lesions, because acute SEH appears hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. We report on two cases of acute SEH with unusual contrast enhancement patterns on MR images. Contrast enhancement can be an MR finding of acute SEH, especially in bleeding.
Acute spinal epidural hematoma may occur spontaneously with no apparent or only trivial antecedent cause. Bleeding may also occur secondary to trauma, spinal surgery, angioma, vascular malformation or coagulopathies, most particularly anticoagulant therapy. The hemorrhage generally occurs at the level of the spinal cord with sudden symptoms of. Epidural hematomas occur when an artery is injured and arterial blood accumulates between the dura and the calvarium. Do not cross suture lines because of the tight adherence of the dura to the calvarium and thus have a biconvex or elliptical appearance. The middle meningeal artery is classically involved, especially with a skull fracture MR imaging findings were confirmed by surgical evacuation of the hematomas. 2 Heye 9 reported a case of spontaneous epidural hematoma with MR imaging in a patient taking aspirin prophylactically. Peltola et al 5 reported 1 case of MR imaging of epidural hematoma post-LP in an adult Epidural hematoma was suggested by MRI examination and was confirmed at surgery when clotted blood was found at epidural space. MRI imaging is the technique of choice for evaluating epidural hematoma provides information for the nature and extent of the SDH, as well as the degree of cord compression Spinal epidural hematoma is a collection of blood in the potential space between the dura and the bone, along the spinal canal. Significant bleeding can lead to spinal cord damage, causing neurological injury and deficit. This is a neurosurgical emergency
The now-ubiquitous availability of modern imaging techniques coupled with vastly improved pre-hospital care standards, rapid triage systems, and improved postoperative care have allowed the modern neurosurgeon to approach the goal of zero mortality in the treatment of isolated epidural hematoma (10) Spinal epidural hematoma is a rare but devastating complication of iliac vein stent-ing. Radicular back pain during and after procedure is an alarming sign for this complication. KEYWORDS iliac vein, post-thrombotic syndrome, spinal epidural hematoma
Subdural hematomas are usually crescentic shaped and have the capability of crossing the cranial sutures. The etiology of a subdural hemorrhage occurs from a tearing of the bridging veins in the subdural space. Subdural hematomas can be lethal with mortality rates ranging from 50-85%. Subdural Hematoma Using magnetic resonance imaging, we have been identifying traumatic spinal epidural hematomas on a somewhat frequent basis in patients with spinal fractures. However, in the literature, traumatic spinal epidural hematomas associated with spinal fractures are reported as rare or, at best, quite infrequent [ 1 , 2 ] Vertex epidural hematomas can be mistaken as artifact in traditional axial CT scan sections. Even when correctly detected, the volume and the mass effect may easily be underestimated. In some cases, coronal and sagittal reconstructions can be used to evaluate the hematoma on coronal planes (see the images below). Radiology. 2010 Oct. 257(1. 5. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of epidural hematoma include all of the following except. A. Acute bleeding into the epidural space B. Bleeding may be arterial or venous. C. A linear skull fracture may be present. D. Most common in elderly population . 6. Imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of epidural hematoma is. A. Contrast head. Epidural hematoma as a complication of sphenoid sinusitis and epidural abscess: a case report and literature review.. Clin Imaging . undefined; 26 (6): p.382-5. doi: 10.1016/s0899-7071(02)00454-
Epidural hematoma is usually associated with skull fracture. These extraaxial blood clots may cause brain herniation. Clinical examination in this patient revealed a dilated and non-reactive pupil on the right side Dorsal epidural scar tissue is formed by reabsorption of surgical hematoma and may be involved in pain generation . In the ventral epidural space, dense scar tissue is formed by ventral defects in the disk, which may persist despite surgical treatment and continue to produce low back pain and radiculopathy past the surgical healing phase [ 17 ] An epidural hematoma developed postoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed only after paraplegia had developed the next day. Unfortunately, delayed hematoma evacuation could not prevent persistent paraplegia in this case, which was complicated by hospital-acquired pneumonia with sepsis and acute renal failure
•Spinal anesthesia offers the same advantages as epidural anesthesia, with a shorter time of onset. •Approximately one third of patients who have had dural puncture will develop a post dural puncture headache (PDPH). •Intracranial subdural hematoma is rare, having been reported fewer than 100 times (according to a lit review in 2018) Epidural Hematoma: Findings on CT. © 2021 - The Calgary Guide to Understanding Disease Disclaime
In magnetic resonance imaging, the signal intensity (SI) of the intervertebral disc depends on the water content. Traumatic disc herniations or ruptured discs generally have high SI on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and low SI on T2-weighted MRI.  However, epidural hematomas, which frequently occur in cases of spinal trauma. Epidural hematoma is a collection of blood in the potential space between the skull and the dura. Because the bleed is often arterial in nature, the hematoma can rapidly expand, causing quick neurologic decline. Often pt has initial LOC, then is conscious and lucid, followed by rapid decline from hematoma expansion and increased ICP aka the.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because of the high vascularization of hemangiomas, preoperative misinterpretation may result in unexpected intraoperative hemorrhage and incomplete resection, which results in the persistence of clinical symptoms or recurrence. Our purpose was to analyze various MR imaging features of a spinal epidural hemangioma with histopathologic correlation Epidural hematoma, also called extradural hematoma, a type of head injury involving bleeding into the space between the skull and the dura mater, the outermost layer of the protective structures surrounding the brain.It can occur when a traumatic force applied to the head is sufficient to cause a deformity of the skull and damage to the underlying middle meningeal artery Spontaneous lumbar epidural hematoma-MRI. Tuesday, August 18, 2009 epidural hematoma , Musculoskeletal MRI. These are sagittal MRI T1 and T2 weighted images of lumbar spine revealing posterior epidural hematoma which was surgically confirmed and drained. This old patient presented with sudden onset paraparesis
Based on imaging, pathology, and intraoperative findings, it was concluded that the patient had an extruded disc segment that may have precipitated venous bleeding in the epidural space and findings of acute cervical spinal cord compression. Cervical disc extrusion may lead to venous damage, epidural hematoma, and spinal cord compression Feb 5, 2020 - Explore Mariana Rachkova's board Epidural hematoma on Pinterest. See more ideas about epidural hematoma, neurology, medical anatomy Epidural hematomas are found in 1% to 4% of patients imaged for cranio-cerebral trauma. The most common cause of EDH is a fracture lacerating the middle meningeal artery or a dural venous sinus. EDH are located between the skull and the dura and strip the dura away from the inner table of the skull Purpose: Our purpose was to show the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of vertex epidural hematomas (EDHs) and emphasize pitfalls in the diagnosis of this entity.Subjects and methods: The neuroradiologic studies of four patients (CT in four, MR imaging and MR venography in one) were evaluated for EDH shape, size and appearance
The authors report a case of hyperacute spinal epidural hematoma, an uncommon condition, imaged by both magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The relative specificity of these two imaging methods for this abnormality is discussed, and recommendations for emergent imaging in this setting are given Vertex epidural hematomas: imaging findings and diagnostic pitfalls. Journal Article (Journal Article) PURPOSE: Our purpose was to show the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of vertex epidural hematomas (EDHs) and emphasize pitfalls in the diagnosis of this entity ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to present MRI characteristics of traumatic spinal epidural hematomas (TSEHs) and to evaluate their effect on neurologic outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed of all 74 cases in which patients underwent emergent spinal MRI in the setting of acute trauma at our institution's Emergency. An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner table of the skull. It is confined by the lateral sutures (especially the coronal sutures) where the dura inserts. It is a life-threatening condition, which may require immediate intervention and.
Thus clinical signs can be delayed, whereas epidural hematoma is the result of an arterial bleed. SDH is classified as acute, subacute and chronic by CT imaging. The hyperdense acute subdural evolves into isodense subacute subdural, and finally into hypodense chronic subdural hematoma (hygroma) Chronic = hypodense. ** Extradural (epidural) vs subdural : epi = above dural , sub = below dural (potential space between dura ( inserts firmly into each sutures) and arachnoid). Dura is a tough thick membrane. Deepest layer covering the brain is the PIA MATER, it tightly hugs the brain into every sulci T6-T8, dorsal to spinal cord Epidural fat ≥ 7 mm thick • Lumbar spine: 39-42% L4-L5, surrounding thecal sac • Y-shaped configuration to lumbar thecal sac on axial imagi
Spontaneous resolution of tetraparesis because of postoperative cervical epidural hematoma. Jang JW (1), Lee JK, Seo BR, Kim SH. Author information: (1)Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Medical School & Research Institute of Medical Sciences 501-757, Gwangju, Republic of Korea In 50% of the cases of epidural hematomas in children, there is no underlying skull fracture. In children 6 years and older the most common event causing an epidural hematoma is a blow to the side of the head, such as a fall off a bicycle. CT is the method of choice to evaluate an epidural hematoma Both epidural and subdural spinal hematoma has been reported in the literature and it is challenging to differentiate between them based on MRI, therefore the surgeon should keep both in mind. In a case report by Qiyang Xu et al 11 , spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma happened after mechanical thrombectomy and catheter-directed thrombolysis A spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma (SCHE) is a rare condition with an estimated incidence of 0.1/100,000. Vascular malformations, infections, coagulopathies, and anticoagulants are thought to be responsible for the majority of the cases.[5, 8]The classical clinical presentation is acute neck or interscapular pain, and as a result of the spinal cord compression sensory and motor loss. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a relatively rare but potentially disabling disease. Prompt timely surgical management may promote recovery even in severe cases. We report a 34-year-old man with a 2-hour history of sudden severe back pain, followed by weakness and numbness over the bilateral lower limbs, progressing to intense paraparesis and anesthesia
In the situation of a suspected spinal epidural hematoma, a spinal MRI is the preferred imaging modality, as it affords higher resolution versus a spinal CT. Angiography When evaluating epidural hematomas located in the vertex, the healthcare professional should evaluate for the presence of a dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula that may have. An epidural hematoma refers to bleeding that occurs between the dura meningeal layer and the skull (the bleeding will separate the dural from the bone. It is classically caused by the rupture of the middle meningeal artery, although more chronic presentations can be caused by venous bleeding. This is often secondary to fracture of the temporal. As far as operative indications for spinal epidural hematoma are concerned, symptoms and duration from onset are thought to be quite important. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) intensity of the hematoma could be a key factor in determining the need for operative intervention. Here, we discuss two cases of spinal epidural hematoma
Discussion. Epidural hematoma usually occurs due to the insertion of a needle into the epidural space, vascular abnormalities in the epidural venous plexus, and/or anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy .Most reports, however, indicate that intra- or postoperative anticoagulation therapy combined with the epidural or subarachnoidal approach is the main reason for excessive bleeding in the. An epidural hematoma (EDH) greater than 30 cm 3 should be surgically evacuated regardless of the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score.. An EDH less than 30 cm 3 and with less than a 15-mm thickness and with less than a 5-mm midline shift (MLS) in patients with a GCS score greater than 8 without focal deficit can be managed nonoperatively with serial computed tomographic (CT) scanning and. Most cases of spinal-epidural hematoma have been reported in patients who are receiving some kind of anticoagulation therapy or who have an otherwise compromised coagulation. 4-6 Studies that investigated the use of central neuraxial block in the presence of an antiplatelet treatment with ASA or NSAIDs found no increased risk for spinal. An urgent neurosurgical consult sought to evaluate for decompressive surgery is required if an epidural hematoma is detected. On MR imaging, a hematoma appears as an isointensity on the spinal cord seen on T1-weighted images or as a heterogeneous hyperintensity with focal hypointensity on T2-weighted images
Radiology Cases and Radiology Case Reports. In this case possibility of Epidural hematoma is more likely due to sudden onset of symptoms clinically, low signal intensity of collection on T2w and T2*GRE, iso to hyper intensity on T1w images, non enhancing on post contrast on imaging, thought there no history of history of trauma and normal coagulation profile Epidural hematomas (EDH) are often located at the cerebral hemisphere convexities or the posterior fossa often following trauma. The offending source of bleeding in a majority of EDHs is secondary to arterial, venous, or bony vascular channel compromise. EHD located on the vertex cerebrum (vEDH) are relatively uncommon, however, may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if. Introduction. Spinal epidural hematomas are a rare occurrence, accounting for less than 1% of all spinal canal space-occupying lesions (1,2).Spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas (SSEH), defined as blood within the epidural space without known traumatic or iatrogenic cause, have an estimated incidence of 0.1 in 100,000 per year (2-5).They may be associated with coagulopathies or arteriovenous.
Vertex epidural hematoma: surgical versus conservative management: two case reports and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 1999 Sep. 45(3):621-4; discussion 624-5. . Muench MV, Zheng M, Bilica PM, Canterino JC. Prenatal diagnosis of a fetal epidural hematoma using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography and magnetic resonance imaging Conservative treatment, Magnetic resonance imaging, Spinal epidural hematoma Spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) is an uncommon entity that was first reported in the 17th century. More than 260 reports have been published since then, and numerous causes have been described ( 5 , 25 ) Evaluation of postoperative spinal epidural hematoma after biportal endoscopic spine surgery for single-level lumbar spinal stenosis: clinical and magnetic resonance imaging study. World Neurosurg 2019;126:e786-92 A cervical magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an acute posterior epidural hematoma from the C3-T3 vertebrae. Ultimately, the patient underwent emergency hematoma removal and showed partial improvement in symptoms of paralysis during follow-up An epidural hematoma is a mass of blood in the space between the inner table of the skull and the dura mater (the leathery outer covering of the brain). Typically caused by traumatic brain injury, the bleeding into the epidural space can cause pressure on the brain which can lead to neurological symptoms including coma and death if severe enough
Definition (MSH) Accumulation of blood in the EPIDURAL SPACE between the SKULL and the DURA MATER, often as a result of bleeding from the MENINGEAL ARTERIES associated with a temporal or parietal bone fracture. Epidural hematoma tends to expand rapidly, compressing the dura and underlying brain Subdural hemorrhage (hematoma) may occur without fracture or penetrating injury, due to differential movement of the brain and skull, tearing the bridging ve.. Besenski N. Traumatic injuries: imaging of head injuries. Eur Radiol 2002; 12:1237. Matsumoto K, Akagi K, Abekura M, Tasaki O. Vertex epidural hematoma associated with traumatic arteriovenous fistula of the middle meningeal artery: a case report. Surg Neurol 2001; 55:302. Heit JJ, Iv M, Wintermark M. Imaging of Intracranial Hemorrhage
A traumatic retroclival epidural hematoma is a rare imaging finding of severe cervical flexion-extension injury in the pediatric population. The purpose of our study was to identify pediatric patients with a retroclival epidural hematoma, record the hematoma size and extent, and examine the major craniocervical ligaments for injury A spinal subdural or epidural hematoma is an accumulation of blood in the subdural or epidural space that can mechanically compress the spinal cord. Diagnosis is by MRI or, if not immediately available, by CT myelography. Treatment is with immediate surgical drainage. (See also Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders .
Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated an epidural hematoma in the posterior fossa that compressed the pons and medulla. On admission, the patient was confused and had bilateral abducens palsy. He was treated conservatively, and 6 months after admission, the epidural hematoma on the clivus had disappeared on MR imaging and the bilateral. Abstract. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) has been reported as a rare condition especially in childhood. Because its symptoms are atypical, it is not easy to diagnose the onset of SSEH. However, with wider use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), several SSEH cases, especially not requiring surgical intervention, have been reported Epidural Hematoma (EDH) Figure 1: The left middle cranial fossa biconvex hyperdense epidural hematoma on axial CT (left) is likely secondary to middle meningeal artery injury, usually associated with fracture of the temporal bone in the same area, visible in this patient as nondisplaced fracture on bone window axial CT (right) Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare but serious neurosurgical condition necessitating a prompt treatment in order to avoid serious morbidity or mortality [1, 2].It is estimated.
Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare disease that can lead to the acute onset of severe neurological deficits, 1 requiring early diagnostics and rapid treatment to reduce the. Epidural hematoma leading to spinal cord compression is a rare complication associated with epidural analgesia. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are critical to a favourable neurologic outcome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the gold standard for diagnosis of spinal epidural hematoma Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lumbar chronic epidural hematoma which compressed the dural sac behind and extended from L2 to L5. [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] Two-thirds of the patients had history of hypertensive disease or transitory hypertensive status after surgery Using CT, scalp, bone, extra-axial hematomas, and parenchymal injury can be demonstrated. Computed tomography is rapid and easily performed also in monitored patients. It is the most relevant imaging procedure for surgical lesions. Computed tomography is a suitable method to follow the dynamics of lesion development giving an insight into the. Epidural hematoma (EDH) is an intracranial hemorrhage between the outer membrane of the brain (dura mater) and the skull, usually caused by trauma. The hematoma is most often caused by laceration.
The patient had bilateral hearing loss; right facial paralysis; and right ophthalmoplegia, chemosis, and proptosis. There was fluid drainage from the ears that may have represented CSF leak. Skull base fractures, particularly those that involve.